Development and Validation of the TBS

doi 10.9769/EPJ.2023.15.2.PS

Peta Stapleton, Dawson Church, and Andrew Newberg

Stapleton, P., Church, D., & Newberg, A. (2023). Development and validation of the Transcendent Beliefs Scale (TBS): A 12-item assessment of self-transcendent states. Energy Psychology: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 15(2), 13–26.



The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Transcendent Beliefs Scale (TBS). We defined transcendent experiences as an experience of unity with others and the whole of existence, which is associated with behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and transcendental factors. Our aim was to develop a very brief instrument that accurately reflected the phenomenology of transcendent states.

Keywords: trauma, chronic pain, dissociation, EFT, EMDR, mindful breathing, bilateral stimulation, BLS, WHEE, HeartMath, blended, combined, interventions


The factor structure, validity, and reliability of the TBS were assessed across a sample of university students and energy therapy practitioners (N = 305).


With respect to convergent validity, we found that transcendent experiences were positively correlated with daily spiritual experiences, trait hope, and meaning in life. Discriminant validity was demonstrated through a negative weak relationship to narcissistic personality traits. Exploratory factor analysis reduced the scale to 12 items and a two-factor model was found to fit the data.


The results indicate that the TBS is a valid and reliable scale to measure transcendent beliefs in the general population. It is suitable for research projects in which a brief measure of transcendence is required.


transcendent beliefs, transcendent experiences, universal oneness, scale validation, unity consciousness, existence, transcendental phenomenology.

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